my identity as a heart cell is just a generalised statement as i am actually a myocardium created generated from an undifferentiated cell. I am not alone I am sadly forced to be part of this team of myocardium we are forced to work non-stop all day in an rhythmic fashion in order to pump blood to all the other cells of the body. I do this in synchronised movement with my team members as we receive our signal as a wave which allows for us all to contract with almost perfect timing. communication between us occurs because of special features between some of my neighbours called intercalated disks which contain gap junctions and is the source of the communicating channels between us cells. Gap junctions are protienaceous tubes that connect nearby cells and act as a communication hub. They arise from connexins which grouped form connexins which allow the passage of small water soluble molecules and inorganic ions between cell cytoplasm they can also couple us cells electrically. Intercalated disks our communication manager in a sense carry waves of depolarization which sweep across to my entire team and synchronize the contraction of my team. This is caused by the passage of ions through the team in a domino effect, Ca2+ ions is used for this . Low intracellular Ca2+ concentration opens gap junctions and inversely high concentration closes them. This allows entery of extracellular Ca2+ and creation of the action potential,which rapidly occurs and is reversed since our team has the ability to regulate our permeability at our gap junctions.
Well many of you can guess that this picture is an inaccurate diagram meant to represent a cell. what exactly is a cell may have crossed your mind at some point of time, a green insect like android from the dragon ball universe is not what I refer to, neither is it a barred up room where outlaws are kept. However the word cell actually was used to describe membrane bound sacks of organic material which are viewed as compartments which are the basic structural and function biological unit found in all living organisms. This blog will help you to understand the inner mechanisms of the cell that allows life to occur and go into detail about how exactly these mechanisms work together to be considered as a living entity please do enjoy
The process by which glycogen, glucose or other sugars are converted into pyruvate is called Glycolysis which means splitting of glucose and does not require the presence of oxygen. Glycolysis occurs in 10 steps witch are displayed below
1)In the cells in the presence of ATP hexokinase phosphorylates Glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate this is trapped in the cell as no means of exiting the cell exists for it .
2) The enzyme phosphorglucoisomerase then converts Glucose-6-phosphate is into fructose-6-phosphate.
3) ATP in the presence of phosphofructokinase1, phosphorylates Fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose 1,6,diphosphate. The ATP looses a phosphate becoming ADP this reaction in not reversible.
4) The splitting of fructose 1, 6-diphosphate into 2 substances glyceraldehydes phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate isomers of each other.
5)Glyceraldehydes phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate are inter convertible in the presence of triose phosphate isomerase. Glyceraldehyde phosphate being removed at formation to be used in the next step of glycolysis.
6) The enzyme phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase phosphorylates and oxidises 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate into 2 molecules of 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid NAD and inorganic phosphates are required. The enzyme transfers a hydrogen ion (H-) from glyceraldehyde phosphate to the oxidizing agent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to form NADH. A phosphate (P) is added from the cytosol to the oxidized glyceraldehyde phosphate triose phosphate dehydrogenase to form 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate. Both molecules of glyceraldehyde gets this.
a) Triose phosphate dehydrogenase + 2 H- + 2 NAD+ → 2 NADH + 2 H+
B. Triose phosphate dehydrogenase + 2 P + 2 glyceraldehyde phosphate (C3H5O3P1) → 2 molecules of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (C3H4O4P2)
7) By means of phospho glycerate kinase in the presence of Mg++.1,3-diphospho glyceric acid is converted into 3-phospho glyceric acid.
8) Phosphoglyceromutase relocates the P from 3-phosphoglycerate from the third carbon to the second carbon to form 2-phosphoglycerat.
9) For each molecule of 2-phosphoglycerate the enzyme enolase removes a molecule of water from 2-phosphoglycerate to form phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) via a condensation reaction.
10) Under the influence of phospho pyruvate kinase and in the presence of Mg++ and K+ the phosphoenol pyruvic acid transfers its energy rich phosphate to ADP forming enolypyruvic acid and ATP. This reaction yields 2 molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 ATP molecules.The enol pyruvic acid then spontaneously transformes into pyruvic acid.
Primarily used in forming cell membranes lipids are a large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds related by general insolubility in water and their solubility in nonpolar organic solvents. First used in the lipid bi layer common to all living things as the membrane structure for cells. Its use as storage of energy in the form of fats and oils has developed through evolution. An extremely important role of lipids is the further evolution into more complex structures such as cholesterol and other biologically active molecules. Lipids consist mainly of hydrocarbons in their composition and are highly reduced forms of carbon in the form of a glycerol attached to one or more fatty acid strands. The Fatty acids component of lipids are long chain carboxylic acids. During respiration lipids are oxidized releasing large amounts of energy and thus are useful to living organisms. Lipids are found in and can be extracted from plants and animals using nonpolar solvents such as ether, chloroform and acetone Lipids that are hydrolysable in water contain a functional group ester.
Nucleic acids are large organic molecules essential for all forms of life and are used as the main components of chromosomes small gene carrying bodies in the nucleus of complex cells which make up DNA and RNA. Proteins, nucleic acids are the most important biological macro molecules though nucleic acids are used in complex sequences to code for proteins. A Nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a carbon-5 sugar either a Ribose in case of RNA or a Deoxy-ribose in case of DNA and one or more phosphate groups. In the state were the base and the sugar are bonded without the phosphate group it is called a Nucleoside, the phosphate group attaches by means of carbon 5 in the sugar in a condensation reaction including phosphoric acid. The phosphate group has an OH groups which allows the addition of additional phosphate sections to the molecule. The OH on the phosphate and sugar regions provide the unit that holds the various segments of the nucleic acid chain to each other. The below diagram shows the five nitrogenous bases which are used to make nucleotides used to store information in our bodies, these nucleotides are combined into long chains called a polynucleotide in such a pattern that can code for phenotypes in the body. Thymine occurs only in DNA, and uracil only in RNA.
So this amazing bird native of Australia has extraordinary mimicking ability which it uses to attract a mate close enough to see its tail feather performance talk about effort, ladies he sings he dances and he has his own crib plus isa pretty boy definitely boyfriend material, maby is uwi girls he trying to get ;). These birds do grow to an impressive size up to 98 cm long though they are relatively poor flyers with strong long legs for walking. Their song includes other bird calls along with any interesting sounds they hear such as car alarms chainsaws or camera shutters. they live for up to 30 years becoming mature in 5
With all these new crazes about the need for energy provided by energy drinks and other so call energy rich foods have u not ever wonder why with all this excess energy in our bodies we don’t just go into an exponential energy release and spontaneously combust or at least be able to use it as chakra or spiritual energy, i mean why is this energy not just leaking from our bodies causing a disturbance in the air around us. Have u considered how much energy rich foods we consume and don’t use yet in places where food is scarce we see people restlessly working with out the aid of a monster or even a red bull. What happens to all this excess energy were does it all go we all know energy cannot be destroyed so were does it all go. Firstly we need to examine why high energy products such at sugar and honey can sit in our cupboards for an unlimited amount of time without changing or even some of this energy leaking out. Well this is because the form we find energy present in food as is a potential form or a storage form which is used in more complex cells as to not waste energy when it is in excess but to keep it for times were it is not as readily available. This is done by trapping the energy in complex structures that can stably contain it in a form were it can be later retrieved. This is best done in fat but this is not always the best way because retrieval of energy from fat is not reliable in cases where large amount of quick energy is needed. Organisms have adapted against this by keeping a reasonable amount of this energy in the form of sugars which through glycolysis and then the Krebs cycle can be used to create just enough energy for usage. sugars are basically energy rich configurations of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen that can be broken down to produce energy necessary for life processes. sugars are just at that point were large amount of energy can be stored in them without them reacting to release it unless in the presence of enzymes produced for this purpose.
Proteins 3dimentional structure come about from hydropobic interactions between non polar side chains and their need to trap themselves behind polar sections in an attempt to reduce interactions with a cells polar medium. This force is further supported by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces and in some cases disulfide bonds. In unfavourable conditions such as extreams of ph or in the presance of excess heat all these interactive forces which bring about that shape may be disrupted after which the protein structure is left with nothing holding it together so it unraveles, when this hapens to the extent were the protein can no longer opperate it is refered to as being denatured, denaturing processes rearly affect a proteins primary structure. On the other hand an unraveled protein that has it’s primary structure intact can when reintroduced into favourable conditions once again spontaniously fold and become viable this is called renaturing.